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閱讀 24155 次 歷史版本 12個 創建者:又是一年芳草綠 (2010/2/19 5:47:27)  最新編輯:5月桂湖 (2011/5/31 0:45:00)
長江
拼音:cháng jiāng
英文:Yangtze River;Changjiang River
  長江(古稱江、大江等),位于中國境內,全長6,380公里,發源于中國青海唐古拉山脈各拉丹冬雪山西南側,是中國、亞洲第一和世界第三大(同時也是長)河流,其長度僅次于尼羅河亞馬遜河,超過地球半徑。長江干流流經青海、西藏、四川、云南、重慶、湖北、湖南、江西、安徽、江蘇、上海11個省、自治區、直轄市,于崇明島以東注入東海。
長江水系示意圖(點擊放大)

  長江干流自西而東橫貫中國中部。數百條支流輻輳南北,延伸至貴州、甘肅、陜西、河南、廣西、廣東、浙江、福建8個省、自治區的部分地區。長江流域面積達180萬平方公里,約占中國陸地總面積的1/5。淮河大部分水量也通過大運河匯入長江。

  長江是中國水量最豐富的河流,水資源總量9616億立方米,約占全國河流徑流總量的36%,為黃河的20倍。與長江流域所處緯度帶相似的南美洲巴拉那—拉普拉塔河和北美洲密西西比河,流域面積雖然都超過長江,水量卻遠比長江少,前者約為長江的70%,后者約為長江的60%。

長江源頭


  長江源流主要有沱沱河、當曲楚瑪爾河三支,其中沱沱河為長江正源。沱沱河全長358公里,發源于唐古拉山脈主峰,海拔6621米的各拉丹冬雪山西南側。穿過雪山與谷地,出唐古拉山區后北流,切開祖爾肯烏拉山較低的山崗,至葫蘆湖附近再往東流,于囊極巴隴附近接納右岸支流當曲后,之后便是通天河。通天河自當曲口至青海省玉樹縣巴塘河口,長813公里。
青海唐古拉山長江源頭的冰川

  《禹貢》中提到:“岷山導江,東別為沱?!焙筧俗源艘暈?a class='classic'href='//www.nxego.icu/MyLemmaShow.aspx?lid=625445' target="_blank">岷山為長江源頭。自漢代一直到唐宋乃至明代,人們普遍認為岷江為長江源頭?!逗菏欏さ乩碇盡吩?a class='classic'href='//www.nxego.icu/MyLemmaShow.aspx?lid=123502' target="_blank">金沙江描述更進一步,明確指出其是長江一條支流。北魏酈道元在《水經注》中對長江上游的許多河流都進行了詳細描述,尤其是金沙江。此后的著作中對金沙江上游不斷推遠。明代徐霞客對金沙江和岷江實地考察后寫下著名的《江源考》,在文中對岷江源頭說提出了明確質疑。最后他自己做出判斷:“推江源者,必當以金沙江為首?!?a class='classic'href='//www.nxego.icu/MyLemmaShow.aspx?lid=3679' target="_blank">清代康熙年間繪制的《康熙內府輿圖》繪出了通天河和木魯烏蘇河,并指出木魯烏蘇河為通天河最遠的一源。乾隆年間齊召南的《水道提綱》中進一步指出通天河即為金沙江上源。同時文中較為全面的描述了尕爾曲、沱沱河、當曲、冬曲和楚瑪爾河。長江最上源河流情況基本清楚,但沒有進一步指明到底哪一條為主源。

 
數億噸沿岸泥沙被水沖走,古森林急劇減少;長江里的白鰭豚、中華鱘、刀魚等可能滅絕;長江生命力在消失……專家們吶喊:如果再不及時?;こそ?,十年內長江就可能變成第二條黃河!
 民國年間,有人對江源進行考察,其結果見于1946年版的《中國地理概論》,書中寫道:“上游青海境內有南北兩源,南源曰木魯烏蘇,北源曰楚瑪爾?!?976年夏中國江源考察隊得出了:“長江三源說:沱沱河雖與當曲長度相當,但沱沱河流向順直,位置居中,為正源,當曲水流量和流域面積均遠大于沱沱河,可稱南源,楚瑪爾河橫貫江源地區北部,流域面積較大,可稱北源?!?986年長江科學考察漂流探險隊對江源進行了一次考察,主張當曲應為正源。經過幾次考察,長江出現了“一源”、“兩源”、“三源”諸說。

  2008年9月6日,由青海省政府組織,國家測繪局指導,武漢大學測繪學院技術支持,青海省測繪局負責實施的“三江源頭科學考察”項目啟動,科考隊隊長為青海測繪局副局長唐千里,首席科學家是中科院遙感應用所的研究員劉少創,兩院院士孫樞、陳俊勇加盟。此次大規??蒲Э疾旎疃?,歷經41天,行程7300多公里。本次科考采用的確定河源的標準與方法是:“按照國際上河流正源確定的三個標準,即‘河源唯長’、‘流量唯大’、‘與主流方向一致’的標準,同時考慮流域面積,河流發育期、歷史習慣”。根據這次科考,當曲且曲源頭應為長江源頭。這次科考以當曲與沱沱河的交匯處囊極巴隴為起算點,當曲最長的源頭——且曲長度為360.34千米,比沱沱河最長的支流尕恰迪如冰川末端的長度348.63千米長11.71千米,比沱沱河支流姜古迪如冰川末端的長度343.72千米長16.62千米。同時,當曲的流量和流域面積均大于沱沱河,歷史上人類在長江源區的活動也以當曲年代為久,歷史記錄為多。因此,當曲的且曲源頭應為長江源頭。且曲發源于青藏高原唐古拉山脈東段北支5054米無名臺地東北處,行政隸屬為青海省玉樹藏族自治州雜多結多鄉。

上游段


 
通天河
 長江自江源各拉丹冬峰(海拔6621m)西南側的姜根迪如南支冰川開始,冰川融水與尕恰迪如崗雪山東南一交融水相會合,稱納欽曲。往北穿過古冰川槽谷,出唐古拉山區與切蘇美曲匯合后,稱沱沱河。河谷開闊,汊流發育呈辮狀,北流至祖爾肯烏拉山區,折轉東流,旁蝕發展,寬淺多汊,變化不定,為典洲的寬谷游蕩型河流。至囊極巴隴附近,當曲從右岸匯人后,始稱通天河。

  通天河向東南流河床逐漸束窄,兩岸山嶺相對高差可達500m左右,河谷呈寬“V”字形。登艾龍曲口以下入峽谷區,河槽歸一,水深增加。至青海直門達,長江干流沱沱河和通大河全長1180km。

  江源西部地區,人跡罕至,有“無人區”之稱。東部人口稍多,居民主要為藏族,從事畜牧業,玉樹附近始有農業林業。

  直門達以下稱金沙江,南流至云南麗江石鼓,為金沙江上段,長958km,平均比降千分之1.76,區間流域面積為7.6×104平方米。本段為典型的深谷河段,相對高差可達2500km以上,除局部河段為寬谷外,大部分為峽谷。兩岸人煙稀少,經濟落后,礦產資源有、、云母、石棉、等,大部分未開發。森林主要分布在玉樹以下。水能理論蘊藏量達1306×104kw,由于地勢險峻,交通不便,高原氣候惡劣,尚未開發利用。

  石鼓至四川宜賓為金沙江下段,橫跨川滇兩省間,全長1326km,落差1570m,平均比降千分之1.2‰,區間流域面積26.8×104平方公里。
金沙江峽谷

  南流的金沙江過石鼓后急轉彎流向東北,形成“長江第一彎”,然后穿過舉世聞名的虎跳峽大峽谷,南北兩岸為海拔50000余m的玉龍雪山哈巴雪山。峰谷高差達3000余m。峽谷全長17km,落差210m,平均比降1.24%,是金沙江落差最集中的河段。水落河口以下,又復南流至金沙街再折轉向東,兩岸山嶺稍低,河谷有所展寬,但峰谷之間高差仍達1000m左右。

  石鼓至宜賓河段是我國第一大水電基地,水量豐沛,多年平均水量1455×108m3,約占宜昌站的l/3,加上落差大,水能資源豐富,水能理論蘊藏量4231×104kw,約占長江于流蘊藏量的46%。支流雅礱江上的二灘水電站,裝機容量330×104kw,是全國在建已發電的最大水電站。

  長江自宜賓至宜昌河段通稱川江,流經四川湖北兩省,全長1040㎞,平均比降約0.2‰,區間流域面積約50×104平方㎞。有岷江、沱江、嘉陵江、烏江四大支流匯入。

  奉節至宜昌200余㎞河段,為峰巒疊障、雄偉壯麗的長江三峽,舉世矚目的三峽水利樞紐興建在西陵峽中。

中游段


  湖北宜昌江西湖口為長江中游段,長955㎞。長江自宜昌以下,即進人長江中下游平原,河床坡降小,水流平緩,沿江兩岸均筑有堤防,并有眾多大小湖泊與河網。

  
荊江大堤
湖北枝城湖南城陵礬河段稱荊江。其中枝城至藕池口為上荊江,長約175㎞,屬一般性彎曲型河道,洲灘汊河發育;藕池口至城陵礬為下荊江,長約162㎞,屬典型的蜿蜒型河道,素有“九曲回腸”之稱。荊江以北為地勢低平的江漢平原,汛期全靠平均高10余m的荊江大堤抵御長江洪水;荊江南岸有松滋、太平、藕池、調弦(已堵塞)4口分長江水入洞庭湖,水道繁雜,長期以來,又受長江從上游挾帶來的泥沙沉積影響,河湖淤淺,荊江兩岸地勢“南高北低”,婉蜒的荊江河床泄洪不暢,防洪形勢非常嚴峻,故有“萬里長江,險在荊江”之說。城陵礬以下至湖口,河道分汊頻繁,主流擺動,航槽變遷,給航行帶來不便。
洞庭湖是中國的第二大淡水湖,跨湖南湖北兩省,它北連長江,南接湘、資、沅、酆四水,號稱“八百里洞庭”

  長江中游段大支流較多,南岸有清江、洞庭湖水系的湘江、資水、沅江、澧水鄱陽湖水系的贛江、撫河、信江、饒河、修水;北岸有漢江。

  長江中游氣候溫和,土壤肥沃,光熱資源充足,盛產水稻、棉花、油料、茶葉、水果等,是我國重要的農業生產基地。鄱陽湖、洞庭湖等大小湖泊水產豐富??蟛試匆?a class='classic'href='//www.nxego.icu/MyLemmaShow.aspx?lid=98963' target="_blank">鐵、、、、、石膏等著名。水資源水力資源也較豐富,在支流上已建成沅江五強溪、清江隔河巖、漢江丹江口、湘江東江、贛江萬安等大型水利樞紐。

  長江中游航運條件優越,內河航運發達,武漢以下可通行5000t級船舶,臨湘以下可通行3000t級船舶。漢江、湘江、贛江擁有較重要的支流航道。 

下游段


  湖口以下至長江口為下游段。下游段江闊水深,多洲灘,河道分汊呈藕節狀。江陰以下河段,河寬從1.4㎞至徐六涇寬5.7㎞,再
崇明島及長江入??謔疽饌?/div>
向東南至崇明島以東的長江口寬達90㎞,呈喇叭形。安徽大通以下600㎞受潮汐影響,是坍岸最嚴重的河段。長江每年挾帶4.8×108t泥沙至河口,因流速平緩和受海潮頂托影響而沉積,形成沙洲、沙壩,使河日淤淺成“攔門沙”,河道分汊,兩岸形成沙嘴,河口三角洲陸地向大海伸展。長江口河道在徑流、海潮、泥沙和地轉偏向力諸多因素的影響下,及由此引起局部河床的沖淤變化,均會導致河道經常演變,長江主汛道南北往復擺動,給海運事業帶來不利影響。長江口河道被崇明島分隔為南支和北支,南支又被長興島、橫沙島分隔為南港和北港,南港再被九段沙分隔成南槽和北槽。目前,長江口主汛已由原來的南支——南港——南槽演變為南支——南港——北槽。

  長江下游段的主要支流有:南岸的青戈江、水陽江、秦淮河、黃浦江;北岸的巢湖水系、滁河淮河人江水道(通過蘇北里運河)。

  長江下游地區是長江流域和全國的精華地區,農業集約化程度高,工業基礎雄厚,科技文化先進,智力資源豐富,城鎮化程度高,水陸交通發達。上海中國最大的工業城市和外貿港口,將建成中國最大的國際經濟、金融、貿易中心。上海港口吞吐量已達1×108t以上。

  長江下游兩岸平原湖泊洼地廣闊,高程一般低于洪水位4~10m,靠堤防?;?。每當汛期暴雨積水,長江又承接上、中游洪水和下游支流洪水,水位居高不下,易造成外洪內澇。沿海一帶若遇臺風、暴雨、潮汐同時襲擊,災害更為嚴重。因此,防洪排澇工程建設是下游地區人民生產生活的重要保障。

流域分界


 
長江
長江
 長江流域的界線,北以巴顏喀拉山、西傾山、岷山、秦嶺、伏牛山、桐柏山、大別山、淮陽丘陵等與黃河淮河流域為界;南以橫斷山脈云嶺、雞足山、滇中東西向山嶺、烏蒙山、苗嶺、南嶺等與瀾滄江、元江紅河)和珠江流域為界;東南以武夷山、黃山、天目山等與閩浙水系為界;長江源頭地區的北部以昆侖山柴達木盆地內陸水系為界,西部以可可西里山、烏蘭烏拉山、祖爾肯烏拉山、尕恰迪如崗雪山群與藏北羌塘內陸水系為界,南部以唐古拉山怒江流域為界;長江三角洲北部,地形平坦,水網密布,與淮河流域間的分界很難劃分,通常以通揚運河為界,其南部沿杭嘉湖平原南側丘陵與錢塘江流域分界。

  上述分界勾繪出的長江流域輪廓,很像一個兩端較窄、中部寬闊的大菱角。整個流域位于東經90度33’~122度25’、北緯24度30’~35度45’之間,從西到東直線距離在3000㎞以上,南北寬度除江源和長江三角洲地區外,一般均達1000㎞左右。

  長江與相鄰流域的分水界線,大部分比較明顯、順直,但有一些地段的山嶺,時斷時續,溝谷交錯;有些是地勢坦闊、山嶺低平的高原;有些是山嶺走向與河流平行或斜交——這些地區的分水界線都不太明顯。

  在溝谷交錯、山川平行或斜交的地段,分水嶺地勢低矮,形成埡口,兩側河谷靠近,自古以來,人們就利用這些天然通道,發展陸路交通,開鑿人工運河,使長江與相鄰流域相溝通。這種地形也為今后跨流域引水和建設現代運河創造了有利條件。

長江流域自然景觀


  在中國綜合自然區劃中,長江流域分屬華中區、西南區和青藏區。沿四川盆地西部邊緣,北至秦嶺,南接云貴兩省交界的連線以東,包括中國大陸地勢第二級階梯的四川盆地、貴州高原、陜南、江南丘陵和第三級階梯的長江中下游平原屬華中區;自第二級階梯四川西昌、九龍、木里云南中甸、奔于欄連線以南,包括云南北部和四川涼山彝族自治州為西南區;西南區以北,包括四川甘孜藏族自治州、阿壩藏族羌族自治州青海玉樹藏族自治州通天河流域,直至江源地區,屬中國大陸地勢第一級階梯——青藏區。
  

華中區


  處在中國南方往北方的過渡地帶,屬亞熱帶季風氣候。1月平均氣溫在0℃以上,河流、土壤基本不凍結,冬夏季風交替,年降水量約1000㎜,四季分明。冬季四川盆地、貴州高原尤其溫暖濕潤;東部長江中下游地區,北無高山阻隔,受寒潮南下影響,氣溫較同緯度偏低。春季相對多雨。夏季高溫高濕,武漢、重慶、南京為著名的“三大火爐”,利于喜溫的水稻等作物生長,梅雨現象突出,暴雨集中,易產生洪澇。秋季秋高氣爽,但常有秋旱發生。本區地貌類型多種多樣,西有肥沃的“紫色盆地”四川和喀斯特地形廣泛發育的貴州高原;南有南嶺和山清水秀的江南丘陵;北有秦嶺大別山、桐柏山諸山組成的淮陽山地;中有湖泊眾多、河網交織、阡陌縱橫的“魚米之鄉”長江中下游平原。區內名山大川匯聚,名勝古跡廣布,旅游資源豐富。濕潤的亞熱帶常綠闊葉林為本區主要景觀,有青岡、拷、樟、榕、冬青等屬樹種和馬尾松林、竹林等,一年四季,水綠山青。土壤大部為紅壤、黃壤和山地黃棕壤。平原河谷與盆地廣泛分布著經過長期耕種、灌水、熟化而形成的水稻土。北部大別山、桐柏山一帶為常綠闊葉與落葉闊葉混交林,土壤為黃棕壤。成都平原、江漢平原、洞庭湖、鄱陽湖太湖一帶湖濱平原均為重要的商品糧、棉、油基地;四川盆地和江南、江北丘陵區梯田層疊,塘堰、水庫星羅棋布。北部小麥、油菜、水稻一年兩熟;南部水稻一年兩熟,冬小麥或油菜、雙季稻也可一年三熟。區內盛產棉、麻、茶、桑、蠶、毛竹、柑桔、油菜、油桐等經濟作物經濟林,又是中國淡水魚和各類水產的主要產地。
  

西南區


  川滇兩省接壤的金沙江兩岸是海拔2000m左右的滇中高原。紅色巖系風化侵蝕后形成平緩的丘陵,受新構造運動影響,斷裂下陷的一系列盆地與丘陵相間分布,構成高原地貌一大特色。金沙江干流的支流下游,往往下切劇烈,峽谷深邃,江水洶涌。本區氣候夏半年為西南季風控制,冬半年受熱帶大陸氣團影響,一年干濕兩季分明。冬短,無夏,春秋長,“四季如春”。由于降水量的80%~90%集中在5~10月,冬春干旱突出,背風的河谷地帶尤甚。植被亞熱帶干性常綠闊葉林。土壤為紅壤。農作物主要有水稻、小麥、玉米茶葉、烤煙等。本區西部為著名的橫斷山脈區,地形起伏大,嶺谷之間高差懸殊,上下氣候迥然不同,緯度地帶性規律被復雜的地形所打破,自然景觀呈垂直變化,俗稱:“一山有四季,十里不同天”。從干熱的谷底到高山頂部,植被、土壤依次可為:稀樹草叢——褐紅壤;常綠闊葉林——紅壤;針閥混交林、針葉林——山地棕壤;高山灌叢草甸——高山草甸土;更高的山上還會出現墊狀植被——寒漠土;雪線以上為冰川積雪帶。河谷兩岸水稻可一年三熟,并能種植一些熱帶經濟作物,山上適宜農林牧多種經營。
 

青藏區


  長江流域江源部分在“世界屋脊”——青藏高原的中部和東部,地勢高亢,地面海拔達5000m左右,向東緩緩傾斜,至四川阿壩附近降至海拔3200m左右。高原開闊,大部分地表起伏和緩,切割輕微,山嶺渾圓呈丘崗狀,相對高度僅數百米。山嶺之間鑲嵌著寬谷和盆地,河流坡降小,水流散亂,時分時合,形成辮狀水系。谷坡、河灘牧草茂盛,排水不暢處,沼澤濕地廣布。高原南部和東南邊緣,因河流強烈下切,形成高山深峽或中山峽谷,切割破碎。高原上空氣稀薄,大氣干潔,太陽輻射強烈,氣溫低,年較差小,日較差大,降水較少,楚瑪爾河上游年降水量僅200mm左右,向東南逐漸遞增,至馬爾康一帶可達800mm。夏半年受西南季風影響,東南邊緣受東南季風尾閭影響,降水均集中夏季。江源一帶夏季降水仍以冰雪為主,海拔5800m以上終年積雪,發育現代冰川。東部貢嘎山東坡海拔4900m以上終年積雪,有現代冰川。昆侖山脈唐古拉山脈之間寬達550km范圍內,分布著深厚的永久凍土,是世界上中低緯度海拔最高、面積最廣的凍土區,寒凍風化和融凍作用十分普遍。高原植被稀疏,多沙礫或基巖裸露,屬高寒荒漠。

  高寒草原或草甸草原景觀,草原遼闊,是長江流域最廣闊的牧業區。青海玉樹藏族自治州西部江源一帶,地勢高寒,“四季如冬”,無農業,為純牧業區,牧放的藏羊、牦??紗錆0?500m,是世界放牧最高的地區,并有藏羚、藏原羚(黃羊)、野驢、野牦牛、旱獺、黑頸鶴、白唇鹿等特有及稀有野生動物分布。


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